Business Formation – Business Incorporation and Organization

Business Formation Overview

Establishing a robust legal framework for your business or undertaking the process of incorporation is a critical initial step. Embarking on a business venture comes with numerous challenges; however, the formation of the business should not be one of these obstacles. The manner in which your business is formed significantly influences its operations and taxation. The difference between structures often lies in decision-making processes. For instance, a sole proprietor has the liberty to make autonomous decisions, whereas a partner in a partnership must legally seek approval from other partners before making business-related decisions. Particularly in a partnership, it is crucial to have an agreement that delineates each partner’s rights and obligations, buyout options, and business operations. Leveraging our knowledge and experience, our team at MBLAW is well-equipped to recommend a business structure that best aligns with your unique business requirements and specific circumstances.

Business Structures
in Canada

The choice of a business structure significantly impacts how a business operates and is taxed in Canada. From a sole proprietorship, where one individual holds all responsibility, to a corporation, which exists as a separate legal entity, each form has its unique benefits and considerations. Below, we delve into the various organizational forms of business, offering a clear understanding to assist you in selecting the structure best suited to your business needs and objectives.

Sole Proprietorship

A sole proprietorship is the simplest business form in Canada. It is owned and operated by a single individual, who is responsible for all aspects of the business, including its debts and liabilities. The business does not have a legal identity separate from its owner, so the owner’s personal assets may be at risk in case of business failure.


A partnership involves two or more individuals or entities carrying on a business together. Partners share profits and losses, and each partner is personally liable for the debts and obligations of the business. A formal partnership agreement outlining rights, responsibilities, and procedures for conflict resolution is highly recommended. This form allows sharing of managerial duties and financial risks.


A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. It provides limited liability to its owners and has an existence independent of its owners. Corporations can own property, incur debts, and initiate or face lawsuits. They offer greater protection to the owners’ personal assets but require more administrative work and have a higher cost to set up than other business forms.


A cooperative is a business organization owned and controlled by its members. It operates for the benefit of its members and returns surplus revenues to them. Each member has one vote, regardless of their investment or participation level, promoting democratic control. Cooperatives can be set up as non-profit or for-profit organizations.

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Personal Protection

Incorporation safeguards your personal finances from the liabilities of business loans or expenditures. Unless you have provided a personal guarantee, directors, officers, and shareholders remain unaccountable for corporate debts or obligations.


Individual Legal Status

Corporations in Ontario possess the same legal rights and responsibilities as an individual. They can engage in contractual agreements, possess properties, incur debt, and initiate or face lawsuits.


Enduring Existence

Owing to their legal status, corporations outlive their owners. They persist until formal liquidation is completed. A corporation does not require renewal or re-registration, and it can be dissolved at any point at your discretion.


Tax Benefits

Financial advisors often suggest incorporation when business revenue reaches certain thresholds. Your accountant or tax consultant can guide you towards the most beneficial path for your business.

Business Formation: Frequently Asked Questions

Incorporation is the process of establishing a new corporate entity or company. Your business can be incorporated as an Ontario Corporation or a Federal Corporation. If your business is Ontario-based and does not plan to operate nationwide, it would be appropriate to incorporate within the province. However, if your business intends to operate across Canada, Federal incorporation might be more suitable, despite requiring more paperwork and higher fees. You can change your level of incorporation later, but your business name might not be available.

Intellectual property, including patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets, is often a crucial asset for businesses. Protection of intellectual property may necessitate registration with the relevant authorities, usage of non-disclosure agreements, and regular monitoring for potential violations. A business lawyer can offer advice on the most effective strategies for intellectual property protection and can assist with legal action if infringement occurs.

The governance of a company relies predominantly on two key bodies: the shareholders and the board of directors. Directors are selected by the shareholders and are entrusted with managing the company. They participate in board meetings and make vital decisions regarding both the strategic direction and daily operations of the business.

Shareholders are individuals or entities that possess ownership in a company via their initial financial contributions or subsequent share purchases. Despite owning parts of the corporation, they are considered separate legal entities. Shareholders enjoy certain rights like electing the company’s directors, attending annual general meetings, and accessing annual reports. Though there is no age restriction for being a shareholder, legal complexities can arise when shareholders are minors.

A shareholder agreement is a contract among the shareholders of a company, defining their rights, responsibilities, and protections. It may detail how to manage disagreements, how shares can be sold or transferred, and how the company will operate. A well-crafted shareholder agreement can help prevent disputes and ensure the smooth functioning of the business.